Understanding Cancer

Causes and Risk Factors

Cancer tumours can be divided into three groups: benign, malignant or precancerous

  • Smoke cigarettes/ cigars/ bidis/ chillams/ hookahs.

  • Consume chewing tobacco/ khaini/ gutka/ pan masala

  • Being overweight or obese

  • Unhealthy diet with low fruit and vegetable intake.

  • Lack of physical activity.

  • Sexually transmitted HPV infection.

  • Infection by hepatitis or other carcinogenic infections.

  • Ionizing and ultraviolet radiation.

  • Urban air pollution.

  • Indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels.

Preventing Cancer

With so many different types of cancers, the symptoms are varied and depend on where the disease is located. However, there are some key signs and symptoms to
look out for, including:

  • Do not smoke cigarettes/ cigars/ bidis/ chillams/ hookahs.

  • Do not consume chewing tobacco/ khaini/ gutka/ pan masala.

  • Maintain a healthy weight.

  • Exercise regularly.

  • Maintain a healthy diet with high fruit and vegetable intake

  • Avoid alcohol

  • Vaccinate against Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and the Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)

  • Use contraceptives during sexual intercourse to prevent against HPV infection

  • Reduce exposure to ultraviolet radiation.

  • Reduce exposure to ionizing radiation (occupational or medical diagnostic imaging).

  • Protect against urban air pollution

  • Avoid indoor smoke from household use of solid fuels (eg: cooking on woodfire stove/ chula